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Colorectal Cancer, Childhood
Colorectal cancer is also known as colon cancer, bowel cancer or rectal cancer. It is any cancer i.e. a growth, tumor or lump of the colon and the rectum. Cancer which begins in the colon is called colon cancer, and cancer which begins in rectum is called as a rectum cancer. Cancer which begins in either of these organs is called as colorectal cancer. A colorectal cancer may be benign or malignant. Benign means the tumor will not spread while a malignant tumor consists of cells which spread to other parts of the body and damage them.
According to the World Health Organization, colorectal cancer is the second most common cancer worldwide, after lung cancer. The American Cancer Society Suggests that 1 in 20 people in the US will develop colorectal cancer during their lifetime, with the risk being slightly higher in men than women. Due to advances in the screening techniques and improvements in treatments, the death rate from colorectal cancer has been dropping for over 20 years. Contact us to get your colorectal cancer treatment in India.
The Colon and Rectum
The colon and rectum belong to our body’s digestive system- together they are also known as the large bowel. The colon reabsorbs large quantities of water and nutrients from the undigested food products as they pass along it. The rectum is at the end of the colon and stores faeces (stools, waste material) before being expelled from the body.
Types of Cancer in the Colon & Rectum
Adenocarcinomas make up more than 95% of the colorectal cancers. These cancers start in the cells which make the mucus to lubricate the inside of the colon and the rectum. Some subtypes of it such as signet ring and mucinous may have worse prognosis.
Other less common types of tumors which start in the colon and rectum include:
Carcinoid Tumors start from the specialized hormone-making cells in the intestine.
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) begin from specialized cells in the walls of the colon calle the interstitial cells of Cajal. Some are benign and these tumors can be found anywhere in the digestive tract, but are not common in the colon.
Sarcomas start in the blood vessels, muscle layers or other connective tissues in the wall of the colon and rectum. Sarcomas of the colon and rectum are rare.
Lymphomas are cancers of the immune system cells which typically start in the lymph nodes, but they can also start in the colon, rectum or other organs.
Risk Factors of Colorectal Cancer
Researchers have found several risk factors that might increase a person’s chance of developing colorectal polyps or colorectal cancer.
- Risk factors you can change
- Being overweight or obese
- Certain types of diets
- Physical inactivity
- Heavy alcohol use
- Risk factors you can’t change
- A personal history of colorectal cancer or colorectal polyps, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)
- Being older
- Your racial and ethnic background
- A family history of colorectal cancer or adenomatous polyps
- Having type 2 diabetes
- Having an inherited syndrome
- Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP)
- Lynch syndrome (hereditary non-polyposis colon cancer, or HNPCC)
- Turcot syndrome
- Peutz-Jeghers syndrome
- Factors with unclear effects on colorectal cancer risks
- Night shift work
- Previous treatment for certain cancers
The most common symptom of colorectal cancer is a change in bowel habits. Other symptoms are:
- Feeling that your bowel does not empty completely
- Having diarrhea or constipation
- Finding your stools are narrower than usual
- Losing weight with no known reason
- Finding blood, either bright red or very dark in your stool
- Feeling very tired all the time
- Frequently having has pains or cramps, or feeling full or bloated
- Having nausea or vomiting
- Cramping and abdominal or belly pain
Often these symptoms may not be due to cancer as other health problems can also cause the same symptoms. Anyone with these symptoms should visit a doctor to be diagnosed and treated. Get in touch with us to know the Cost of Rectal Cancer Treatment in India.
It is recommended that adults age 50 to 75 be screened for colorectal cancer. There are several screening tests such as:
- Stool Tests
- The guaiac-based fecal occult blood test (gFOBT)
- FIT-DNA test or stool DNA test
- Fecal Immunochemical test (FIT)
- Flexible Sigmoidoscopy
- CT Colonoscopy or Virtual Colonoscopy
If your doctor finds something suspicious during a screening exam, or if you have possible symptoms of colorectal cancer, then your doctor will recommend exams and tests to find the cause. Send us your query to know the Colonoscopy Test Price in Bangalore India.
- Medical history and physical exam
- Blood tests
- Complete blood count (CBC)
- Tumor markers
- Liver enzymes
- Lab tests of biopsy samples
- Gene tests
- MSI and MMR tests
- Imaging tests to look for colorectal cancer
- Computer tomography (CT or CAT scan)
- Endorectal ultrasound
- Abdominal ultrasound
- Intraoperative ultrasound
- Chest X-ray
- Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan
- Endorectal MRI
- Positron emission tomography (PET) scan
- PET/CT scan
Doctors describe the colorectal cancer by the following stages:
Stage 0: Another name for stage 0 is carcinoma in situ. The cancer is found only in the innermost lining of the colon or rectum.
Stage I: The tumor has grown into the inner wall of the colon or rectum and the tumor has not grown through the wall.
Stage II: The tumor extends more deeply into or through the wall of the colon or rectum. It may have invaded the nearby tissue, but the cancer cells have not spread to the lymph nodes.
Stage III: The cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes but not to other parts of the body.
Stage IV: The cancer has spread to other parts of the body such as the lungs or liver.
Recurrence: This is when the cancer which has been treated has returned after a period of time when the cancer could not be detected. The disease may return in the colon or rectum or in another part of the body.
If you have been diagnosed with colorectal cancer, you cancer care team will discuss about your treatment options. It is significant to weigh the benefits of each treatment option against the possible risks and side effects. Check out the List of Best Cancer Surgeons in India and the Top Oncologist in India by contacting us. Send us your query to know Colorectal Cancer Surgery cost in Delhi India.
There are several ways to treat colorectal cancer, depending on its type and stage:
Local Treatments: They remove or destroy the cancer in or near the colon or rectum without affecting the rest of the body. Most likely, they’ll be used for earlier stage cancers.
Systemic Treatments: The drugs will enter the bloodstream and destroy or contol cancer through out the body.
Depending on the stage of the cancer and other factors, different types of treatment may be combined at the same time or used after one another. Get your Treatment for Colorectal Cancer at top Hospital in India by sending us your query. Contact us to know the Affordable Colon Cancer Surgery at Mumbai Hospital.
Surgery: It is most common treatment for colorectal cancer.
Colonoscopy: A small malignant polyp is removed from colon or upper rectum using a colonoscope. Some small tumors in the lower rectum can be removed through anus without a colonoscope.
Laparoscopy: Each colon cancer is removed with aid of a thin, lighted tube called laparoscope. Three out of four tiny cuts are made into your abdomen, the surgeon sees inside your abdomen with laparoscope. The tumor and part of healthy colon as well as nearby lymph nodes are removed. The surgeon checks the rest of intestine and liver to see if cancer has spread.
Open surgery: The surgeon makes a large cut into abdomen to remove the tumor and part of the healthy colon or rectum and some nearby lymph nodes. Further, he/she will check if the cancer has spread to your intestine or liver.
The time to heal post surgery is different for each person. You will feel uncomfortable for first few days and medications will help control your pain. It is common to feel tired or weak and sometimes surgery causes diarrhea or constipation. Your healthcare team monitors for signs of bleeding, infection or other problems needing immediate treatment.
Chemotherapy: It uses anticancer drugs to kill cancer cells. The drugs enter the bloodstream and affect the cancer cells all over the body. Often given through a vein, sometimes it may be given by mouth. You’ll be treated at an outpatient part of the hospitals and rarely a hospital stay is required. Contact us to now the Chemotherapy Cost for Colon Cancer in India.
The side effects depend mainly on the specific drugs and the doses. These drugs can harm the normal cells such as blood cells, cells that line the digestive tract and cells in hair roots which divide rapidly. It can cause the skin on the palms of the hands and bottom of the feet to become red and painful, as well as the skin may peel off. To control side effects, your healthcare team will suggest ways. Most of these side effects go away after the treatment ends.
Biological Therapy: People with colorectal cancer which has spread receive a monoclonal antibody, a type of biological therapy which bind to the colorectal cancer cells and interfere with its growth and spread of the cancer. They receive it through a vein at a hospital or clinic. Some of them receive chemotherapy at the same time.
Some people get medicine to prevent a possible allergic reaction. The side effects mainly depend on the monoclonal antibody used. The side effects are fever, rash, vomiting, abdominal pain, bleeding, diarrhea, blood pressure changes or breathing problems.
Radiation Therapy: Also called as radiotherapy, it uses high energy rays to kill the cancer cells and affects the cancer cells only in the treated area. Send us your query to get the Less price Radiation Therapy in Mumbai India.
Doctors use different types of radiotherapy to treat cancer:
- External radiation: Radiation comes from a machine and the most common type of machine used is called a linear accelerator. Patients need to go to the hospital for five days a week for several weeks.
- Internal radiation/implant radiation/brachytherapy: Radiation comes from radioactive material placed in thin tubes put directly into or near the tumor. The patient stays in hospital, generally the implants remains for several days and removed before the patient goes home.
- Intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT): In some cases, radiation is given during surgery.
Side effects mainly depend on the amount of radiation given and part of your body being treated. Radiotherapy to abdomen and pelvis causes diarrhea, nausea, bloody stools, vomiting or urgent bowel movements and also caused urinary problems. Additionally, the skin in treated area becomes tender, dry and red. You will be very tired during this therapy and resting is vital. However, doctors often advice patients to try to stay as active as possible. Often the side effects will go away after the treatment ends.
It is vial post treatment for colorectal cancer. Your doctors monitor recovery and check for recurrence of cancer. Get schedule for follow-up exams and tests post treatment. Also get suggestions for diet and physical activity post treatment. Watch out for long-term side effects from your treatment and contact your doctor. Get Low Cost Colorectal Treatment in India by contacting us.